Status, Distribution & Conservation

The Monarch Butterfly, Danaus plexippus L., in Canada

Acknowledgements

I'm especially grateful to Don Davis, the Monarch's best friend in Canada, for service above and beyond the call of duty. I'd also like to thank Carolyn King of the Cartography office of the Geography Department at York University for providing the map outlines. This report would not have been possible without the help of a large number of people who were free with both their records and their time (from west to east): Cris Guppy, Norbert Kondla, Braden Walters, Al Wormington, Quimby Hess, David Gibo, Michael Oldham, Don Sutherland, Don Lafontaine, Jeff Crolla, Tony Thomas, Stuart Tingely, Chris Majka and Howard Clase. I also wish to thank Laurence Packer, Jeff Crolla and Don Lafontaine for comments that have greatly improved the accuracy and readability of this report.

Literature Cited

  • Ackerman, E.A. (1941) The K√∂ppen classification of climate in North America. Geographical Review 31: 105-111.
  • Alonso-Meija, A. and Brower, L.P. (1994) From model to mimic: age-dependent unpalatability in Monarch butterflies. Experentia 50: 176-181.
  • Anderson, J.B. and Brower, L.P. (1993) Cold-hardiness in the annual cycle of the Monarch butterfly. in Biology and conservation of the Monarch butterfly, Malcolm, S.B. & Zalucki, M.P. (eds.), Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Science Series No. 38, Los Angeles, California., pp. 157-164.
  • Anon. (1990) Weed Inspector's Guide. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.
  • Anon. (1993) Weed Control Act, revised statutes of Ontario, 1990 Chapter W.5. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.
  • Anon. (1995) Canada-Mexico Declaration: creation of an international network of Monarch butterfly reserves.
  • Argus, G.W. and Keddy, C.J. (1984) Atlas of the rare vascular plants of Ontario, Vol. 3, National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa.
  • Argus, G.W. and Pryer, K.M. (1990) Rare vascular plants in Canada: our natural heritage. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, 318 pp.
  • Barker, J.F. and Herman, W.S. (1976) Effect of photoperiod and temperature on reproduction of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus. Journal of Insect Physiology 22: 1565-1568.
  • Bhowmik, P.C. and Bandeen, J.D. (1976) The biology of Canadian weeds. 19. Asclepias syriaca L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 56: 579-589.
  • Bird, C.D.; Hilchie, G.J.; Kondla, N.G.; Pike, E.M. and Sperling, F.A.H. (1995) Alberta butterflies. Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, 349 pp.
  • Borkin, S.S. (1982) Notes on shifting distribution patterns and survival of immature Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danaidae) on the foodplant Asclepias syriaca. Great Lakes Entomologist 15: 199-206.
  • Borkin, S.S. (1993) Rejection of Apocynum androsaemifolium and A. sibiricum (Apocynaceae) as food plants by larvae of Danaus plexipppus: refutation of early accounts. in Biology and conservation of the Monarch butterfly, Malcolm, S.B. & Zalucki, M.P. (eds.), Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Science Series No. 38, Los Angeles, California., pp. 125-128.
  • Brenner, D. (1993) The flight of the Monarch. Long Point Bird Observatory Newsletter 25(1): 1-2.
  • Brower, A.V.Z. and Boyce, T.M. (1991) Mitochondrial DNA variation in Monarch butterflies. Evolution 45: 1281-1286.