Status, Distribution & Conservation

The Monarch Butterfly, Danaus plexippus L., in Canada

Note: This report was submitted to the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC, aka NAFTA) in 1996, and first made available on the web in 1998. Three reports, one for each of the Monarch's home countries, were commissioned by the CEC. You can read the report, beginning immediately below, or choose to download a PDF for offline reading/reference. Note, also, that the author is no longer at York University so don't send him mail there! Use the handy-dandy contact form instead.

A report submitted to the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, 393 rue St. Jacques Ouest, Bureau 200, Montréal, Québec, Canada, H2Y 1N9.

Phil Schappert

York University, Department of Biology, 4700 Keele St., North York, Ontario, M3J 1P3.

April 1, 1996.




     Eastern Population

     Western Population


Population Sizes and Trends

General Biology

     Classification and Description

     Reproductive Biology

     Population Dynamics




     Habitat Requirements


     Nectar Sources

     Abiotic Factors

     Migratory Staging Areas

Trends in Habitat Quality, Quantity and Protection

International Cooperation and Canadian Conservation Efforts

Evaluation and Proposed Status of the Monarch in Canada


Literature Cited

Download PDF

Right click to download a copy of the report.